Body Composition Textbooks
Heyward VH and Stolarczyk LM. Applied Body Composition Assessment. Human Kinetics, 1996.
Roche AF, Heymsfield SB, Lohman TG. Human Body Composition. Human Kinetics, 1996.
Principles of Bioimpedance Body Composition Analysis
Baumgartner RN, et al. Bioelectric impedance for body composition. Exerc. Spt. Sci. Rev. 18:193-224, 1990.
Chumlea WC, et al. Bioelectric impedance methods for the estimation of body composition. Can. J. Spt. Sci. 15(3):172-179, 1990.
Deurenberg P, et al. Factors affecting bioelectrical impedance measurements in humans. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1988; 42:1017-1022.
Ellis J, et. al. Bioelectrical impedance methods in clinical research: a follow-up to the NIH technology assessment conference. Nutrition, Volume 15, Nos. 11/12, 1999.
Gallagher DG, et al. Healthy percentage body fat ranges: an approach for developing guidelines based on body mass index. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2000; 72:694-701.
Girandola RN, et al. The validity of bioelectrical impedance to predict body composition. Olympic Sci. Congress, New Horizons of Human Movement, 1988.
Kyle UG, et al. Fat-Free and Fat Mass Percentiles in 5225 Healthy Subjects Aged 15 to 98 Years. Nutrition, 17:534-541, 2001.
Lohman TG. Advances in body composition assessment. Current Issues in Exercise Science Series, Monograph # 3, Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, IL, 1992.
Lukaski HC, et al. Assessment of fat-free mass using bioelectrical impedance measurements of the human body. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, April 1985; 41:810-817.
Lukaski HC, et al. Validation of tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance methods to assess human body composition. J. Appl. Physiol. 60(4):1327-1332, 1986.
Lukaski HC. Methods for the assessment of human body composition: traditional and new. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1987; 46:537-56.
Nyboer J. Electrical impedance plethysmography. A physical and physiologic approach to peripheral vascular study. Circulation, Vol. 2, Dec. 1950.
Roche AF, et al. Estimation of body composition by impedance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 19(2):40, Suppl., Apr. 1987.
Segal KR, et al. Lean body mass estimation by bioelectrical impedance analysis: a four-site cross-validation study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1988; 47:7-14.
Van Loan MD. Bioelectrical impedance analysis to determine fat-free mass, total body water and body fat. Sports Med. 10(4):205-217, 1990.
Comparison of Bioimpedance with Other Methods
Belford M, et al. The validity of bioelectrical impedance, near-infrared interactance and skinfold equations for estimating body composition in females. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 25(5):S162, 1993.
Brodie DA, et al. Body fat estimations by electrical impedance and infra-red interactance. Int. J. Sports Med. 13(4):319-325, 1992.
Cunningham JJ. New approaches to the noninvasive assessment of body composition: bioelectrical impedance analysis and total body electrical conductivity. Nutr. Int. 3:6-10, 1987.
Johnson K, et al. Comparison of circumference, skinfold, bioelectrical impedance and hydrodensitometry to estimate percent body fat during weight loss. Fed. Proc. 46(4), Mar. 1987.
Kushner RF, et al. Estimation of lean body mass by bioimpedance analysis compared to skinfold anthropometry. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 45(4):830, Apr. 1987.
Levenhagen DK, et al. A Comparison of Air Displacement Plethysmography with Three Other Techniques to Determine Body Fat in Healthy Adults. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, September-October 1999; Vol. 23, No. 5; 293-299.
Lin KH, et al. Reliability of Body Fat Measurement: Skinfold, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Infrared. Journal of the Physical Therapy Association of the Republic of China; September 1995; 102-108.
Meguid MM, et al. Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) method in body composition studies. J. Parent. Ent. Nutr. 11(1), Jan-Feb. 1987.
Pasco JA, et al. Body fat estimated from anthropometric and electrical impedance measurement. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition, 1985 Sep;39(5):365-9.
Sinning WE, et al. Variability of estimating body composition measures by skinfolds and bioresistance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 19(2):39, Supp., Apr. 1987.
Thompson DL, et al. Effects of hydration and dehydration on body composition analysis: a comparative study of bioelectric impedance analysis and hydrodensitometry. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness, 1991; 31(4):565-70.
Vansant G, et al. Assessment of body composition by skinfold anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance technique: a comparative study. J. Par. Ent. Nutr. 1994; 18:427-429.
Villar J, et al. Bioimpedance or anthropometry? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1989; 43:129-137.
Wang J, et al. Validation of body fat estimation by BIA using dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). Fed. Proc. 1987; 46(4).
Bedogni G, et al. Is body mass index a measure of adiposity in elderly women? Obesity Research, 2001 Jan;9(1):17-20.
Blackburn GL. Managing obesity in America: An overview. Advanced Studies in Medicine, 2002;2(2):40-49.
Fulcher GR, et al. A comparison of measurements of lean body mass derived by bioelectrical impedance, skinfold thickness and total body potassium. A study in obese and non-obese normal subjects. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 1991; 51(3):245-53.
Guo SS, et al. Body mass index during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood in relation to adult overweight and adiposity: the Fels Longitudinal Study, International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 2000 Dec;24(12):1628-35.
Heber D, et al. Clinical detection of sarcopenic obesity by bioelectrical impedance analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 1996; 64 (supplement 3); 472S-477S.
Lauenborg J, et al. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a Danish population of women with previous GDM is 3-fold higher than the general population. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2005, 10.1210/jc. 2004-1713.
Mokdad AH, et al. The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991 - 1998. Journal of American Medical Association, 1999; 282:1519-1522.
NIH Consensus Conference Statement, Health Implications of Obesity. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1985; 103 (6 pt 2):1073-1077.
Regional Office for the Western Pacific of the World Health Organization, the International Association for the Study of Obesity and the International Obesity Task Force. The Asia-Pacific perspective: Redefining obesity and its treatment. Health Communications Australia Pty Limited, February 2000.
Rolls BJ, et al. Energy Density But Not Fat Content of Foods Affected Energy Intake in Lean and Obese Women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 1999; Vol. 69; 863-871.
Blair SN, et al. Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men. Journal of American Medical Association, 1995 Apr 12;273(14):1093-8.
Hageman PA, et al. Comparison of two physical activity monitors during a 1-mile walking field test. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 2004; 7(3):102-110.
Lee CD, Jackson AS, Blair SN. US weight guidelines: Is it also important to consider cardiorespiratory fitness? Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 1998 Aug;22 Supplement 2:S2-7.
Bland JS. The use of complementary medicine for healthy aging. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 1998; 4:42-48.
Evans W, Rosenberg IH. Biomarkers. Fireside, 1992.
Guo SS, et al. Aging, body composition, and lifestyle: the Fels Longitudinal Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999; 70: 405-11.
Kyle UG, et al. Physical activity and fat-free and fat mass by bioelectrical impedance in 3853 adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2001;33:576-584.
Chapman R, et al. Body composition testing of athletes in the field using bioelectric impedance analysis. Alaska Med., 1992 Apr-Jun;34(2):87-90,95.
Fornetti WC, et al. Reliability and validity of body composition measures in female athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1999 Sep;87(3):1114-22.
Johnson GO, et al. The validity of bioelectrical impedance, near-infrared interactance and skinfold equations for estimating percent fat in female gymnast. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 25(5):S162, 1993.
Lukaski HC, et al. Body composition assessment of athletes using bioelectrical impedance measurements. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 1990; 30:434-40.
Mattar R, et al. Body mass index (BMI) as an indicator of body composition: evidence through bioelectrical impedance. XVIII Simp. Int. Ciênc. Esp., Oct. 1992.
Oppliger RA, et al. Bioelectrical impedance prediction of fat-free mass for high school wrestlers validated. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1991, 23, S73 (Abstract).
Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine. Nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of American Dietetic Association, 2000; 100:1543-1556.
Baumgartner RN, et al. Body Composition in elderly people: Effect of criterion estimates on predictive equations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1991; 53, 1-9.
Berger VA, et al. Reproducibility of body composition and body water spaces measurements in healthy elderly individuals. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 2000;4(4):24305.
Boeckner LS, et al. Eating behaviors and health history of rural midlife to older women in the Midwestern United States. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2007; 107: 306-310.
Hughes VA, Evans WJ. Assessment of fat-free mass in an older population using bioelectrical impedance. Federation Proceedings, 46(4), 1987.
Omran ML, Morley JE. Assessment of protein energy malnutrition in older persons, part I: History, examination, body composition, and screening tools. Nutrition, 2000 Jan;16(1):50-63.
Roubenoff R, et al. Nutrition assessment in long-term care facilities. Nutrition Review, 1996 Jan;54(1 Pt 2):S40-2.
Svendsen OL, et al. Measurement of body fat in elderly subjects by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1991; 53:1117-23.
Goran MI, et al. Estimating body composition of young children by using bioelectrical resistance. J. Appl. Physiol. 75(4):1776-1780, 1993.
Houtkooper LB, et al. Validity of whole body bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition assessment in children. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 19(2):39, Suppl., Apr. 1987.
Houtkooper LB, et al. Validity of bioelectric impedance for body composition assessment in children. J. Appl. Physiol. 66(2):814-21, 1989.
Houtkooper LB, et al. Bioelectrical impedance estimation of fat-free mass in children and youth: a cross-validation study. J. Appl. Physiol. 72(1):366-373, 1992.
Mazariegos M, et al. Bioelectrical impedance used in association with anthropometry: experience in a field survey of underprivileged Guatemalan children. Age & Nutr. 5(2), 1994.
Roche AF, et al. Fat-free mass in children and young adults predicted from bioelectric impedance and anthropometric variables. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1989; 50:435-43.
Antonio JA, et al. Effects of a Standardized Guggulsterone Phosphate Supplement on Body Composition in Overweight Adults: A Pilot Study. Current Therapeutic Research; April 1999; Vol. 60, No. 4; 220-227.
Colker CM, et al. Effects of Citrus aurantium Extract, Caffeine, and St. John's Wort on Body Fat Loss, Lipid Levels, and Mood States in Overweight Healthy Adults. Current Therapeutic Research; March 1999; Vol. 60, No. 3; 145-153.
Kalman D, et al. Effects of Pyruvate Supplementation on Body Composition and Mood. Current Therapeutic Research; November 1998; Vol. 59, No. 11; 793-802.
Kalman D, et al. The Effects of Pyruvate Supplementation on Body Composition in Overweight Individuals. Nutrition; May 1999; Vol. 15, No. 5; 337-340.
Kalman D, et al. Randomized Trial of an Isocaloric High Protein Diet vs. an Isocaloric Moderate Protein Diet for Short-Term Weight Loss in Healthy Overweight Adults. The Bariatrician; Winter 2000/2001; 10-13.
Udani J, et al. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using phase 2 brand proprietary fractionated white bean extract. Alternative Medicine Review, 2004; 9(1):63-69.
Chertow GM, et al. Bioelectrical impedance analysis predicts survival in hemodialysis patients, abstract #T164, A0969, page 1442. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, September 1996, Volume 7, #9.
Chertow GM, et al. Nutritional assessment with bioelectrical impedance analysis in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 1995, 6:75-81.
Cooper BA, et al. Comparing different methods of assessing body composition in end-stage renal failure. Kidney International, 2000 Jul;58(1):408-16.
de Vries PMJM, et al. Measurement of transcellular fluid shift during hemodialysis. Med. & Biol. Eng. & Comput. 1989; 27:152-158.
Espejo MGA, et al. Determination of extracellular fluid volume using impedance measurements. Crit. Care Med. 1989; 17(4):360-363.
Johnson HL, et al. Use of bioelectrical measurements for the estimation of total body water and extracellular space in man. Fed. Proc. 46(4), Mar. 1987.
Kushner RF, Schoeller DA. Estimation of total body water by bioelectrical impedance analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 44: Sept. 1986, 417-424.
Leiter LA, et al. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis measurement in patients with diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1996; 64: 515S-518S.
Ljungqvist O, et al. Whole body impedance measurements reflect total body water changes. A study in hemodialysis patients. Swe. Int. J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 1990; 7(3):163-169.
Lukaski HC, et al. Estimation of body fluid volumes using tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance measurements. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 1988; 59:1163-9.
Lukaski HC. Validation of body composition assessment techniques in the dialysis population. ASAIO J 1997, May-June; 43(3):251-5.
Maehara T, et al. Perioperative monitoring of total body water by bioelectrical impedance in children undergoing open heart surgery. Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 1991; 5(5):258-65.
Mayfield SR, et al. Measurement of extracellular water (ECW) in low birth weight infants using bioelectrical reactance. Am. Ped. Soc. & Soc. Ped. Res. 1987.
McCullough AJ, et al. Measurements of total body and extracellular water in cirrhotic patients with and without ascites. Hepatology, 1991; 14(6):1102-11.
Meguid MM, et al. Rapid bedside method to assess changes in postoperative fluid status with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Surgery 1992; 112:502-8.
Scanforla F, et al. On-line bioelectric impedance during hemodialysis: monitoring of body fluids and cell membrane status. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. Suppl. 1 (1990):167-170.
Segal KR, et al. Estimation of body water distribution by bioelectrical impedance. Fed. Proc. 1987; 46:1334.
Stall SH. Comparison of five body-composition methods in peritoneal dialysis patients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1996; August; 64(2):125-30.
Van Loan MD, et al. Use of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) to determine extracellular fluid (ECF), intracellular fluid (ICF), total body water (TBW) and fat-free mass (FFM). Int. Symp. In Vivo Body Comp. Studies, Texas, Nov. 1992.
Westendorp RGJ, et al. Weight changes in critically ill patients evaluated by fluid balances and impedance measurements. Crit. Care Med. 1993; 21(6):871-877.
Wu TJ, et al. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of nutritional status in uremic patients on regular hemodialysis. Taiwan I. Hsueh. Hui. Tsa. Chin. 1991; 90(11):1044-8.
Body Cell Mass
De Lorenzo A, et al. Predicting body cell mass with bioimpedance by using theoretical methods: a technological review. Journal of Applied Physiology, 82(5): 1542-1558, 1997.
Jacobs DO. Bioelectrical impedance analysis: a way to assess changes in body cell mass in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J. Parent. Ent. Nutr., 17(5):401-2, 1993.
Kotler DP, et al. Prediction of body cell mass, fat-free mass, and total body water with bioelectrical impedance analysis: effects of race, sex, and disease, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1996; 64 (supplement); 489S-497S.
Schloerb PR, et al. Bioimpedance as a measure of total body water and body cell mass in surgical nutrition. Eur. Surg. Res. 18(SL):3, 1986.